LN

LN(1) User Commands LN(1)

NAME
ln – make links between files

SYNOPSIS
ln [OPTION]… [-T] TARGET LINK_NAME (1st form)
ln [OPTION]… TARGET (2nd form)
ln [OPTION]… TARGET… DIRECTORY (3rd form)
ln [OPTION]… -t DIRECTORY TARGET… (4th form)

DESCRIPTION
In the 1st form, create a link to TARGET with the name LINK_NAME. In
the 2nd form, create a link to TARGET in the current directory. In the
3rd and 4th forms, create links to each TARGET in DIRECTORY. Create
hard links by default, symbolic links with –symbolic. When creating
hard links, each TARGET must exist.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options
too.

–backup[=CONTROL]
make a backup of each existing destination file

-b like –backup but does not accept an argument

-d, -F, –directory
allow the superuser to attempt to hard link directories (note:
will probably fail due to system restrictions, even for the
superuser)

-f, –force
remove existing destination files

-n, –no-dereference
treat destination that is a symlink to a directory as if it were
a normal file

-i, –interactive
prompt whether to remove destinations

-s, –symbolic
make symbolic links instead of hard links

-S, –suffix=SUFFIX
override the usual backup suffix

-t, –target-directory=DIRECTORY
specify the DIRECTORY in which to create the links

-T, –no-target-directory
treat LINK_NAME as a normal file

-v, –verbose
print name of each linked file

–help display this help and exit

–version
output version information and exit

The backup suffix is `~’, unless set with –suffix or SIM-
PLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX. The version control method may be selected via the
–backup option or through the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable.
Here are the values:

none, off
never make backups (even if –backup is given)

numbered, t
make numbered backups

existing, nil
numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise

simple, never
always make simple backups

AUTHOR
Written by Mike Parker and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS
Report bugs to <bug-coreutils@gnu.org>.

COPYRIGHT
Copyright © 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU
GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO
link(2), symlink(2)

The full documentation for ln is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If
the info and ln programs are properly installed at your site, the com-
mand

info coreutils ‘ln invocation’

should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 6.12 May 2008 LN(1)

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