As a Physics undergraduate student (in my almost middle age) with great interest in Astronomy, Linux and Open source software, I cannot give enough thanks to team behind the Distro Astro – Linux for astronomers.
The Distro Astro is a Debian based distribution, you can test run it in full from the live DVD version without the need to install it first. Their latest version (2.0) is called Pallas and contains various software packages used by professional and amateur astronomers. It comes loaded with camera drivers, imaging software, tools for astrophotgraphy, planetariums, sky maps and charts, data analysis tools and much more.
A unique feature of Distro Astro is support for Nightvision Mode. This allows you to toggle between normal and red nightvision colors to preserve dark adaptation (of your eyes) while using the computer at night, especially during observations.
In the spirit of true open source, the developers have asked for contribution from other developers and non-developers in packaging existing software, creating new tools and features, mirror hosting, bug testing, promoting the distro, hardware support and financial sponsoring.